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Parmenides

 

Parmenides, perhaps the most significant philosopher of the Pre-Socratic philosophy era is believed to have been born in the Greek colony of Elea (now Ascea). However, his date of birth is argued to be either 540 BCE as per numerous evidences or 515 BCE taking into consideration, as stated by Plato, that Parmenides visited Athens at the age of 65 in 450 BCE.

 

Parmenides, the founder of the school of Elea, has been most influenced by Xenophanes' philosophy, so much so that it is believed that he was a disciple of Xenophanes of Colophon. Parmenides is also said to have written the laws of Elea city.

 

As a philosopher, he believed the world is not as we see it, ever changing and evolving. Instead, his beliefs were, at that point of time, contrary to the common sense and other philosophers who explained and supported their reasoning with what they experienced. Parmenides, however had an insight of the larger picture and often made perplexed conclusions that the world is actually without any movement, a universe that is always constant and the changes that we see are nothing more than an illusion. His perception of reality was that the world is 'One Being': an unchanging, un-generated, indestructible whole.

 

His only known work of literature is a poem titled “On Nature”. The poem itself is survived in fragments of about 160 lines while the original work is believed to have some 3000 odd lines. It is a journey of a young man from darkness to light that is from the illusions that the mortal being witnesses to the ultimate and constant reality of life. The revelation of the aspect of the absolute truth, which is beyond the realm of the opinion of the mortal human, is brought about by an unnamed Goddess (though believed to be Persephone or Dike)

 

The original poem is discovered to have three parts:

 

The Proem, the first section, is the preface to the entire poem in which a young man reaches a temple of a sacred Goddess. And the Goddess reveals the ultimate truth to him.

 

The Way of Truth, the second part, discusses what is real. The context of the section as stated by him is the difference between “it is” and “is not”. To that what exists and what does not exist.

 

The Way of Opinion/Appearance (also called Doxa), the third and final section, deals with the part of reality that is understood by reasons or perceptions.

 

His philosophy tough contradicting to the human perception gained momentum in around 500 BCE. He is un-arguably the most influential of Pre-Socratic philosopher. He has set out a contrasting but conventional view of the world. His deep insight, his unparalleled study of the unknown, his ability to see beyond what the human reasoning can understand earned him the title of the grandfather of Westen Philosophy. Plato himself referred to Parmenides as Father in The Sophist. He has not only influenced other philosophers of the before christ era like Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, and Democritus, but even today the Italian philosopher, Emanuele Severino, uses the works of Parmenides to extend his philosophical views and hence his philosophy is often called Neo Parmenideism

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Parmenides

 

Parmenides, xxxxxxx founder of xxxxxxx xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx has been xxxxxxx influenced by xxxxxxx philosophy, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx so that xxxxxxx is believed xxxxxxx he was xxxxxxx disciple of xxxxxxx of Colophon. xxxxxxx is also xxxxxxx xxxxxxx have xxxxxxx the laws xxxxxxx Elea city.

 

As xxxxxxx philosopher, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the world xxxxxxx not as xxxxxxx see it, xxxxxxx changing and xxxxxxx Instead, his xxxxxxx were, at xxxxxxx xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx contrary to xxxxxxx common sense xxxxxxx other xxxxxxx xxxxxxx explained and xxxxxxx their reasoning xxxxxxx what they xxxxxxx Parmenides, however xxxxxxx an insight xxxxxxx the larger xxxxxxx xxxxxxx often xxxxxxx perplexed conclusions xxxxxxx the world xxxxxxx actually xxxxxxx xxxxxxx movement, a xxxxxxx that is xxxxxxx constant and xxxxxxx changes that xxxxxxx see are xxxxxxx more than xxxxxxx xxxxxxx His xxxxxxx of reality xxxxxxx that the xxxxxxx is xxxxxxx xxxxxxx an unchanging, xxxxxxx indestructible whole.

 

His xxxxxxx known work xxxxxxx literature is xxxxxxx poem titled xxxxxxx Nature”. The xxxxxxx xxxxxxx is xxxxxxx in fragments xxxxxxx about 160 xxxxxxx while xxxxxxx xxxxxxx work is xxxxxxx to have xxxxxxx 3000 odd xxxxxxx It is xxxxxxx journey of xxxxxxx young man xxxxxxx xxxxxxx to xxxxxxx that is xxxxxxx the illusions xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx witnesses to xxxxxxx ultimate and xxxxxxx reality of xxxxxxx The revelation xxxxxxx the aspect xxxxxxx the absolute xxxxxxx xxxxxxx is xxxxxxx the realm xxxxxxx the opinion xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx is brought xxxxxxx by an xxxxxxx Goddess (though xxxxxxx to be xxxxxxx or Dike)

 

The xxxxxxx poem is xxxxxxx xxxxxxx have xxxxxxx parts:

 

The Proem, xxxxxxx first section, xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the entire xxxxxxx in which xxxxxxx young man xxxxxxx a temple xxxxxxx a sacred xxxxxxx And the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx truth to xxxxxxx Way of xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx discusses what xxxxxxx real. The xxxxxxx of the xxxxxxx as stated xxxxxxx him is xxxxxxx difference between xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx not”. To xxxxxxx what exists xxxxxxx what xxxxxxx xxxxxxx exist.

 

The Way xxxxxxx Opinion/Appearance (also xxxxxxx Doxa), the xxxxxxx and final xxxxxxx deals with xxxxxxx part of xxxxxxx xxxxxxx is xxxxxxx by reasons xxxxxxx perceptions.

 

His philosophy xxxxxxx contradicting xxxxxxx xxxxxxx human perception xxxxxxx momentum in xxxxxxx 500 BCE. xxxxxxx is un-arguably xxxxxxx most influential xxxxxxx Pre-Socratic philosopher. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx set xxxxxxx a contrasting xxxxxxx conventional view xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx deep insight, xxxxxxx unparalleled study xxxxxxx the unknown, xxxxxxx ability to xxxxxxx beyond what xxxxxxx human reasoning xxxxxxx xxxxxxx earned xxxxxxx the title xxxxxxx the grandfather xxxxxxx Westen xxxxxxx xxxxxxx himself referred xxxxxxx Parmenides as xxxxxxx in The xxxxxxx He has xxxxxxx only influenced xxxxxxx philosophers of xxxxxxx xxxxxxx christ xxxxxxx like Empedocles, xxxxxxx Leucippus, and xxxxxxx but xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the Italian xxxxxxx Emanuele Severino, xxxxxxx the works xxxxxxx Parmenides to xxxxxxx his philosophical xxxxxxx and hence xxxxxxx xxxxxxx is xxxxxxx called Neo xxxxxxx

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