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ASSIGNMENT
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You are to publish your findings in the form of a term-paper, 7-10 pages, size 12 font, Times New Roman or Arial only, according to the style guidelines of the Modern Language Association (MLA), graphs and charts only, no photographs, Works Cited page a must. In Chapter 3, Unbelievable Stories about Apathy and Altruism, of Superfreakonomics, the sequel to their highly successful book, Freakonomics, economists Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner discuss the spike in crime that occurred after the post-war baby boom in the United States. The authors cite the criminal justice system and the baby boom itself as two of the factors that account for the rise in both property and violent crime. They also mention other possible hypotheses such as the great migration of African-Americans from the rural south to northern cities as well as the return of war-scarred Vietnam veterans. All of these factors combined do not explain the crime surge, they say. Levitt and Dubner write: The answer might be right in front of our faces, literally: television. Maybe Beaver Cleaver and his picture-perfect family weren’t just a casualty of the changing times (Leave It to Beaver was canceled in 1963, the same year Kennedy was assassinated). Maybe they weren’t actually a cause of the problem. People have long posited that violent TV shows lead to violent behavior, but that claim is not supported by data. We are making an entirely different argument here. Our claim is that children who grew up watching a lot of TV, even the most innocuous family-friendly shows, were more likely to engage in crime when they got older. Testing this hypothesis isn’t easy. You can’t just compare a random bunch of kids who watched a lot of TV with those who didn’t. The ones who were glued to the TV are sure to differ from the other children in countless ways beyond their viewing habits. A more believable strategy might be to compare cities that got TV early with those that got it much later. (101-103) Your assignment is to investigate this phenomenon on your own, using your own research, data, and opinion. Remember that Levitt and Dubner are economists who look at things from a statistical point of view. You are media sociologists. You might want to look into such things as the history of TV in the United States. Which towns and cities were first to get TV? What are/were the demographics of these towns? What kind of programming existed in the early days and in the ensuing years? How did the programming differ from one place to the other? What were the types of role models portrayed in these shows? How do you think that these shows influenced the viewers? How do/did viewers view the world after watching years of TV?You can also look at particular incidents from the recent past, criminal or otherwise, (you may even remember some), that were blamed on TV. (Levitt and Dubner mention the infamous murder of Queens resident, Kitty Genovese, in the 1960s.) Views (6)
Body Preview(2325 words)
TELEVISION IN xxxxxxx UNITED STATES The xxxxxxx States has xxxxxxx xxxxxxx market-oriented xxxxxxx system. A xxxxxxx public broadcast xxxxxxx known xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Broadcasting Service xxxxxxx is there xxxxxxx the United xxxxxxx Local media xxxxxxx have their xxxxxxx television stations, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx be xxxxxxx with or xxxxxxx and operated xxxxxxx a xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Except in xxxxxxx small markets xxxxxxx few stations, xxxxxxx agreements are xxxxxxx exclusive. If xxxxxxx station is xxxxxxx xxxxxxx affiliate, xxxxxxx station would xxxxxxx air programs xxxxxxx ABC, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx other networks. xxxxxxx stations, till xxxxxxx and 1980’s, xxxxxxx network programming xxxxxxx their own xxxxxxx shows. However xxxxxxx xxxxxxx today xxxxxxx only local xxxxxxx shows. The xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx xxxxxxx is filled xxxxxxx syndicated shows, xxxxxxx material produced xxxxxxx and sold xxxxxxx individual stations xxxxxxx each local xxxxxxx xxxxxxx no xxxxxxx shaped American xxxxxxx in the xxxxxxx more xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Television existed xxxxxxx in few xxxxxxx wealthy American xxxxxxx at the xxxxxxx of World xxxxxxx II. Just xxxxxxx xxxxxxx later, xxxxxxx two-thirds of xxxxxxx households had xxxxxxx television. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx periodical of xxxxxxx decade was xxxxxxx Guide. In xxxxxxx nation once xxxxxxx by strong xxxxxxx differences, network xxxxxxx xxxxxxx blurred xxxxxxx distinctions and xxxxxxx forge a xxxxxxx popular xxxxxxx xxxxxxx forever changed xxxxxxx The first xxxxxxx to be xxxxxxx was Harry xxxxxxx When Estes xxxxxxx prosecuted mob xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Costello xxxxxxx television, the xxxxxxx senator became xxxxxxx national xxxxxxx xxxxxxx a vice xxxxxxx candidate. Electronic television xxxxxxx successfully first xxxxxxx in San xxxxxxx on September xxxxxxx 1927. This xxxxxxx xxxxxxx designed xxxxxxx a 21 xxxxxxx old inventor, xxxxxxx Taylor xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the age xxxxxxx 14 he xxxxxxx in a xxxxxxx without electricity. xxxxxxx invention of xxxxxxx which scanned xxxxxxx xxxxxxx a xxxxxxx of electrons xxxxxxx the direct xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx xxxxxxx The first xxxxxxx that was xxxxxxx on it xxxxxxx a simple xxxxxxx After some xxxxxxx Farnsworth aimed xxxxxxx xxxxxxx camera xxxxxxx a dollar xxxxxxx Early television xxxxxxx quite xxxxxxx xxxxxxx CBS depicted xxxxxxx like ‘chalk xxxxxxx which showed xxxxxxx newsman who xxxxxxx moving a xxxxxxx over the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Europe. xxxxxxx quality of xxxxxxx picture was xxxxxxx in xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and because xxxxxxx which it xxxxxxx difficult to xxxxxxx out the xxxxxxx and only xxxxxxx map was xxxxxxx xxxxxxx was xxxxxxx slow growth xxxxxxx the development xxxxxxx television xxxxxxx xxxxxxx War II xxxxxxx companies focussed xxxxxxx military production xxxxxxx that time. xxxxxxx a battle xxxxxxx government regulation, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx further slowed xxxxxxx There was xxxxxxx ruling xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the Federal xxxxxxx Commission’s (FCC) xxxxxxx stated that xxxxxxx National Broadcasting xxxxxxx (NBC) had xxxxxxx sell one xxxxxxx xxxxxxx two xxxxxxx networks. The xxxxxxx Court had xxxxxxx this xxxxxxx xxxxxxx 1943. The xxxxxxx network became xxxxxxx new American xxxxxxx Company (ABC). xxxxxxx the air, xxxxxxx World War xxxxxxx xxxxxxx television xxxxxxx were there xxxxxxx each in xxxxxxx Philadelphia, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and Schenectady xxxxxxx two in xxxxxxx York City. xxxxxxx in the xxxxxxx States full-scale xxxxxxx television broadcasting xxxxxxx xxxxxxx begun xxxxxxx 1947. By 1949, xxxxxxx who could xxxxxxx television xxxxxxx xxxxxxx watch The xxxxxxx Star Theatre xxxxxxx or the xxxxxxx program, Howdy xxxxxxx (1947). There xxxxxxx around 6000 xxxxxxx xxxxxxx in xxxxxxx which rose xxxxxxx some 12 xxxxxxx in xxxxxxx xxxxxxx 1951. By xxxxxxx half of xxxxxxx U.S. homes xxxxxxx television and xxxxxxx new invention xxxxxxx American homes xxxxxxx xxxxxxx black xxxxxxx white television xxxxxxx Hundreds of xxxxxxx channels xxxxxxx xxxxxxx to Americans. xxxxxxx TV was xxxxxxx in few xxxxxxx towns. People xxxxxxx given the xxxxxxx to receive xxxxxxx xxxxxxx available xxxxxxx the nearby xxxxxxx because of xxxxxxx large xxxxxxx xxxxxxx were erected xxxxxxx high places. xxxxxxx 1960, there xxxxxxx approximately 640 xxxxxxx (Community Antenna xxxxxxx systems. In xxxxxxx xxxxxxx City, xxxxxxx operators contracted xxxxxxx broadcast the xxxxxxx games xxxxxxx xxxxxxx local basketball xxxxxxx hockey teams. xxxxxxx New York xxxxxxx 1971, cable xxxxxxx more than xxxxxxx subscribers. Adults xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx before television xxxxxxx for children xxxxxxx adolescents, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Television is xxxxxxx (Mitchell Stephens). In xxxxxxx a study xxxxxxx conducted in xxxxxxx which showed xxxxxxx the blue xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx family were xxxxxxx most dependent xxxxxxx TV. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx it’s not xxxxxxx Television has xxxxxxx through economic, xxxxxxx and religious xxxxxxx and now xxxxxxx is a xxxxxxx xxxxxxx By xxxxxxx late 1990’s, xxxxxxx percent of xxxxxxx homes xxxxxxx xxxxxxx least one xxxxxxx set and xxxxxxx sets were xxxxxxx far an xxxxxxx of more xxxxxxx seven hours xxxxxxx xxxxxxx It xxxxxxx not important xxxxxxx people spend xxxxxxx much xxxxxxx xxxxxxx time watching xxxxxxx but the xxxxxxx is that xxxxxxx time is xxxxxxx spent on xxxxxxx activities such xxxxxxx xxxxxxx or xxxxxxx out or xxxxxxx (Sheila H. xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx television was xxxxxxx different and xxxxxxx was a xxxxxxx code of xxxxxxx ethics. Earlier xxxxxxx shows were xxxxxxx xxxxxxx on xxxxxxx and so xxxxxxx less riveting xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx most importantly, xxxxxxx were fewer xxxxxxx and channels xxxxxxx Now days xxxxxxx length of xxxxxxx programs are xxxxxxx xxxxxxx compared xxxxxxx earlier days xxxxxxx very less xxxxxxx was xxxxxxx xxxxxxx front of xxxxxxx television. In American xxxxxxx mostly all xxxxxxx have television; xxxxxxx the percentage xxxxxxx television at xxxxxxx xxxxxxx more xxxxxxx indoor toilets. xxxxxxx people and xxxxxxx spend xxxxxxx xxxxxxx their time xxxxxxx sleeping but xxxxxxx television has xxxxxxx into existence xxxxxxx Americans spend xxxxxxx 2300 hours xxxxxxx xxxxxxx in xxxxxxx of the xxxxxxx In the xxxxxxx States, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx have retooled xxxxxxx to focus xxxxxxx reality TV, xxxxxxx famously MTV, xxxxxxx began in xxxxxxx 1980s as xxxxxxx xxxxxxx video pioneer, before xxxxxxx to a xxxxxxx all-reality xxxxxxx xxxxxxx the early xxxxxxx earlier years xxxxxxx programs and xxxxxxx benefits that xxxxxxx could presumably xxxxxxx to the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx highly xxxxxxx unique selling xxxxxxx for television xxxxxxx In xxxxxxx xxxxxxx action movies xxxxxxx to be xxxxxxx for half xxxxxxx hour like xxxxxxx Lone Ranger, xxxxxxx King, or xxxxxxx xxxxxxx host/puppet xxxxxxx such as xxxxxxx Doody and xxxxxxx Fran xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Whereas now xxxxxxx than two xxxxxxx are given xxxxxxx an action xxxxxxx In 1960’s xxxxxxx serials were xxxxxxx xxxxxxx interest xxxxxxx the children xxxxxxx of the xxxxxxx shows xxxxxxx xxxxxxx shows included xxxxxxx Flintstones, Bullwinkle, xxxxxxx Space Ghost. xxxxxxx 1980s, programming xxxxxxx influenced by xxxxxxx "television revolution" xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx grew and xxxxxxx began to xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Cartoons such xxxxxxx Nickelodeon and xxxxxxx remained the xxxxxxx children's fare, xxxxxxx live action xxxxxxx began to xxxxxxx xxxxxxx number. xxxxxxx earlier years xxxxxxx difference persisted xxxxxxx girls xxxxxxx xxxxxxx "boys' shows," xxxxxxx boys will xxxxxxx watch "girls' xxxxxxx in 20th xxxxxxx viewing is xxxxxxx usually solitary. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx adults xxxxxxx together and xxxxxxx many other xxxxxxx while xxxxxxx xxxxxxx families report xxxxxxx rules about xxxxxxx use. For xxxxxxx children may xxxxxxx be allowed xxxxxxx watch until xxxxxxx xxxxxxx completed xxxxxxx tasks such xxxxxxx homework or xxxxxxx or xxxxxxx xxxxxxx be a xxxxxxx that television xxxxxxx be turned xxxxxxx at a xxxxxxx time. When xxxxxxx report rules, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx control xxxxxxx when younger xxxxxxx can watch xxxxxxx children xxxxxxx xxxxxxx about what xxxxxxx can watch. xxxxxxx was a xxxxxxx availability of xxxxxxx video cassette xxxxxxx during the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx was xxxxxxx for viewers xxxxxxx record and xxxxxxx programs xxxxxxx xxxxxxx to rent xxxxxxx watch movies xxxxxxx times of xxxxxxx choice in xxxxxxx own homes. xxxxxxx this decade, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx became xxxxxxx mostly among xxxxxxx young generation. xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and 1990s, xxxxxxx increased competition xxxxxxx on by xxxxxxx proliferation of xxxxxxx networks, talk xxxxxxx and "tabloid" xxxxxxx xxxxxxx seemed xxxxxxx broaden further xxxxxxx or sensational xxxxxxx discussion xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Nowadays it xxxxxxx possible to xxxxxxx video on xxxxxxx World Wide xxxxxxx and to xxxxxxx and search xxxxxxx xxxxxxx on xxxxxxx computer. As xxxxxxx become more xxxxxxx they xxxxxxx xxxxxxx able to xxxxxxx video as xxxxxxx as they xxxxxxx handle text. xxxxxxx television schedule xxxxxxx eventually be xxxxxxx xxxxxxx a xxxxxxx in which xxxxxxx are able xxxxxxx watch xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and distributed xxxxxxx or segments xxxxxxx programs whenever xxxxxxx want (Allison xxxxxxx development followed xxxxxxx patterns in xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Often xxxxxxx not private xxxxxxx owned most xxxxxxx the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx In Great xxxxxxx the British xxxxxxx Corporation, the xxxxxxx dominant radio xxxxxxx established and xxxxxxx dominance over xxxxxxx xxxxxxx BBC xxxxxxx a worldwide xxxxxxx for producing xxxxxxx programming. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Broadcasting Corporation, xxxxxxx freed by xxxxxxx support from xxxxxxx commercial pressures, xxxxxxx praised by xxxxxxx observers for xxxxxxx xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx of its xxxxxxx and public-affairs xxxxxxx France's xxxxxxx xxxxxxx networks were xxxxxxx supported by xxxxxxx government. By xxxxxxx late 1980s xxxxxxx 1990s, as xxxxxxx and direct-satellite xxxxxxx xxxxxxx increased xxxxxxx number of xxxxxxx the hold xxxxxxx these xxxxxxx xxxxxxx began to xxxxxxx Most countries xxxxxxx the world xxxxxxx moving more xxxxxxx the U.S. xxxxxxx of privately xxxxxxx xxxxxxx television xxxxxxx Television's progress xxxxxxx further slowed xxxxxxx a xxxxxxx xxxxxxx wavelength allocations xxxxxxx the new xxxxxxx radio and xxxxxxx battle over xxxxxxx regulation (Mitchell xxxxxxx In today’s xxxxxxx xxxxxxx which xxxxxxx common in xxxxxxx houses acts xxxxxxx a xxxxxxx xxxxxxx entertainment and xxxxxxx also an xxxxxxx source of xxxxxxx As a xxxxxxx source, television xxxxxxx an important xxxxxxx xxxxxxx helping xxxxxxx and impressionable' xxxxxxx of children xxxxxxx develop xxxxxxx xxxxxxx roles and xxxxxxx traits. Television xxxxxxx to its xxxxxxx a certain xxxxxxx of what xxxxxxx acceptable and xxxxxxx xxxxxxx not xxxxxxx in society. xxxxxxx normal life, xxxxxxx reflects xxxxxxx xxxxxxx social roles xxxxxxx of which xxxxxxx ‘gender’. Television xxxxxxx the potential xxxxxxx teach children xxxxxxx how men xxxxxxx xxxxxxx act xxxxxxx society, and xxxxxxx mould their xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx xxxxxxx expected of xxxxxxx in society xxxxxxx either a xxxxxxx or a xxxxxxx Television can xxxxxxx a significant xxxxxxx xxxxxxx a xxxxxxx growing beliefs xxxxxxx attitudes about xxxxxxx it xxxxxxx xxxxxxx be male xxxxxxx female in xxxxxxx world. (Van xxxxxxx 1990, page xxxxxxx With the xxxxxxx of television, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx were xxxxxxx in American xxxxxxx Every night xxxxxxx depicted xxxxxxx xxxxxxx lawmen such xxxxxxx Hopalong Cassidy xxxxxxx Cisco Kid. xxxxxxx loved to xxxxxxx long running xxxxxxx operas such xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx In certain xxxxxxx schools Program xxxxxxx Freestyle xxxxxxx xxxxxxx which showed xxxxxxx who participated xxxxxxx non-traditional occupational xxxxxxx The impact xxxxxxx television on xxxxxxx roles depends xxxxxxx xxxxxxx age xxxxxxx the child xxxxxxx also on xxxxxxx stage xxxxxxx xxxxxxx development they xxxxxxx at. When xxxxxxx view television, xxxxxxx not only xxxxxxx what they xxxxxxx but they xxxxxxx xxxxxxx it xxxxxxx use their xxxxxxx interpretations (Durkin, xxxxxxx cited xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Evra, 1990, xxxxxxx (Elena xxxxxxx OF TELEVISION Television xxxxxxx the potential xxxxxxx generate both xxxxxxx and negative xxxxxxx xxxxxxx many xxxxxxx have looked xxxxxxx the impact xxxxxxx television xxxxxxx xxxxxxx particularly on xxxxxxx and adolescents. xxxxxxx all television xxxxxxx are bad, xxxxxxx data showing xxxxxxx negative effects xxxxxxx xxxxxxx to xxxxxxx inappropriate sexuality xxxxxxx offensive language xxxxxxx convincing. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx television frequently xxxxxxx their time xxxxxxx important activities xxxxxxx as playing, xxxxxxx learning to xxxxxxx spending time xxxxxxx xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx storytelling, participating xxxxxxx regular exercise, xxxxxxx developing xxxxxxx xxxxxxx physical, mental xxxxxxx social skills. xxxxxxx can be xxxxxxx powerful teacher. xxxxxxx has proved xxxxxxx if children xxxxxxx xxxxxxx hours xxxxxxx unsupervised television xxxxxxx a day, xxxxxxx it xxxxxxx xxxxxxx academic performance, xxxxxxx reading. More xxxxxxx 1000 studies xxxxxxx that exposure xxxxxxx heavy doses xxxxxxx television violence xxxxxxx xxxxxxx behaviour, xxxxxxx in boys. xxxxxxx television, children xxxxxxx many xxxxxxx xxxxxxx including many xxxxxxx of rape xxxxxxx murder. Children xxxxxxx a lot xxxxxxx television are xxxxxxx physically fit xxxxxxx xxxxxxx who xxxxxxx less television xxxxxxx are also xxxxxxx to xxxxxxx xxxxxxx fat and xxxxxxx energy snack xxxxxxx Through television, xxxxxxx are exposed xxxxxxx adult sexual xxxxxxx Through the xxxxxxx xxxxxxx television, xxxxxxx get the xxxxxxx about tobacco xxxxxxx alcohol xxxxxxx xxxxxxx major concern xxxxxxx that the xxxxxxx of using xxxxxxx are not xxxxxxx shown on xxxxxxx Advertising xxxxxxx xxxxxxx positive xxxxxxx on children’s xxxxxxx For example, xxxxxxx alcohol xxxxxxx xxxxxxx 10% of xxxxxxx budget on xxxxxxx warning about xxxxxxx dangers of xxxxxxx and driving. xxxxxxx the United xxxxxxx xxxxxxx questions xxxxxxx raised about xxxxxxx content of xxxxxxx program xxxxxxx xxxxxxx on television xxxxxxx the use xxxxxxx the program xxxxxxx children, influence xxxxxxx television on xxxxxxx attitude, knowledge xxxxxxx xxxxxxx of xxxxxxx children and xxxxxxx the public xxxxxxx which xxxxxxx xxxxxxx children’s television. xxxxxxx questions have xxxxxxx essential to xxxxxxx discussion of xxxxxxx throughout its xxxxxxx century as xxxxxxx xxxxxxx hearth. TV xxxxxxx replaced the xxxxxxx role of xxxxxxx church xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Television builds xxxxxxx of approved xxxxxxx On the xxxxxxx screen, a xxxxxxx percentage of xxxxxxx characters can xxxxxxx xxxxxxx as xxxxxxx romanticized but xxxxxxx of them xxxxxxx seen xxxxxxx xxxxxxx roles. The xxxxxxx characters seem xxxxxxx be less xxxxxxx than the xxxxxxx white characters. xxxxxxx male prime xxxxxxx xxxxxxx are xxxxxxx than the xxxxxxx prime time xxxxxxx and xxxxxxx xxxxxxx in a xxxxxxx of 3:1. xxxxxxx over the xxxxxxx of sixty xxxxxxx years are xxxxxxx underrepresented. According xxxxxxx xxxxxxx there xxxxxxx no handicapped. xxxxxxx of the xxxxxxx act xxxxxxx xxxxxxx roles that xxxxxxx little relevance xxxxxxx real life. xxxxxxx to television, xxxxxxx majority of xxxxxxx are employed xxxxxxx xxxxxxx or xxxxxxx in some xxxxxxx of law xxxxxxx fine xxxxxxx xxxxxxx depicted on xxxxxxx Some shows xxxxxxx real life xxxxxxx who face xxxxxxx life situations xxxxxxx also shown xxxxxxx xxxxxxx There xxxxxxx been proper xxxxxxx of problems xxxxxxx as xxxxxxx xxxxxxx child abuse xxxxxxx are not xxxxxxx on television. xxxxxxx programs shown xxxxxxx television are xxxxxxx the common xxxxxxx xxxxxxx so xxxxxxx is necessary xxxxxxx teach children xxxxxxx evaluate xxxxxxx xxxxxxx depicted with xxxxxxx analytical eye. xxxxxxx must develop xxxxxxx awareness of xxxxxxx effects so xxxxxxx we can xxxxxxx xxxxxxx new xxxxxxx about justice xxxxxxx fairness in xxxxxxx portrayals xxxxxxx xxxxxxx REFERENCES (1) http://www.ushistory.org/us/53c.asp (2) xxxxxxx Stephenshttp://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/History%20of%20Television%20page.htm (3) Sheila xxxxxxx Troppe http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1984/5/84.05.03.x.html (4) Allison xxxxxxx Elena Beasley http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/elb9501.html (6) xxxxxxx
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